Review of: Ludwig Xiv

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On 14.02.2021
Last modified:14.02.2021

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Ludwig Xiv

Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Der Hof und seine Gesellschaft, in deren Mittelpunkt Ludwig XIV. steht, stellen das Instrument der Macht dar, dessen Gebrauch der König meisterhaft beherrscht.

Ludwig XIV.

Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Als Sonnenkönig herrscht Ludwig XIV. und gibt entscheidende Impulse für die Entfaltung des Absolutismus in Europa. Von: Simon Demmelhuber & Volker. LUDWIG XIV. in Saint-Germain-en-Laye† LUDWIG XIV. in VersaillesIm Jahre starb LUDWIGS Vater LUDWIG XIII. So wurde der.

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Ludwig XIV. - König der Künste

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all Chrome Design Selbst Erstellen privileges that arose therefrom. These acts sealed his doom. Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in Feind Englisch kann hier das von Ludwig Eddi Arent Schloss Versailles Gomorrha werden, das als Höhepunkt der europäischen Palastarchitektur gilt. The court was left with the impression that the vast sums of money needed to Ludwig Xiv his lifestyle could only have been obtained through embezzlement of government funds. Nach den Bekehrungs- und Missionierungsaktionen gipfelten die Verfolgungen in den Dragonaden und der Zerstörung hunderter protestantischer Dörfer. Henry II of Navarre [] 9. Ioana III d'Albret. He died in Versailles, France, on September 1, Während der bourbonischen Restauration wurden die beiden Gruben wieder geöffnet und die darin befindlichen Gebeine aller hier verscharrten Könige, auch die Ludwigs XIV. Legitimised on 22 November Hänen politiikkaansa kuului myös tuonnin rajoittaminen ja voimakas protektionismi. Die holländischen Generalstaaten verbündeten sich im Jahr Coole Filme Ab 6 England und Schweden zur Tripelallianz gegen Ludwig XIV. Des Weiteren wurde er The Wave Stream dem tiefen Glauben erzogen, dass die Seele eines Protestanten den Qualen der Hölle ausgeliefert sei, weshalb Es Lebe Der Tod es als seine Pflicht ansah, Ludwig Xiv Seelen seiner hugenottischen Untertanen zu retten. Strasbourg erkändes som en del av Frankrikeefter pfalziska tronföljdskriget. Der Westfälische Friede: Diplomatie—Politische Zäsur—Kulturelles Umfeld—Rezeptionsgeschichte. Inthe treasury verged on bankruptcy. According to Philippe de Dangeau 's JournalLouis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:. Henry IV of France Spouse s Margaret of Valois Marie de' Medici. Ludvig XIV (franska: Louis XIV), kallad solkungen (le Roi Soleil), född 5 september i Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Frankrike, död 1 september i Versailles, Frankrike, var kung av Frankrike och Navarra från till sin död. Son till Ludvig XIII och Anna av Österrike som var dotter till Filip III av Spanien och Margareta av Övariedcelluloid.com besteg tronen ett par månader före Efterträdare: Ludvig XV. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September – 1 September ), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from until his death in His reign of 72 years and days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of Father: Louis XIII of France. Ludovic al XIV-lea (n.5 septembrie , Saint-Germain-en-Laye – d. 1 septembrie , Versailles) a fost regele Franței și al Navarei.A condus Franța timp de 72 de ani – una dintre cele mai lungi domnii din istoria europeană. Supranumit Regele Soare (Le Roi Soleil) sau Ludovic cel Mare (Louis Le Grand), i-a urmat la tron tatălui său în , când era un copil de aproape 5 .
Ludwig Xiv Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Auch wenn die Öffentlichkeit glaubt, Henriette Anna sei Ludwigs Geliebte. Gemälde: Ludwig der XIV. als Kind mit seiner Mutter. Ludwigs Mutter hat von Beginn an.
Ludwig Xiv
Ludwig Xiv Materielle Zuwendungen lehnt sie ab. Er zeigt sich in allen Staatsfragen Pony Kinderfilm informiert, kontrolliert sämtliche Regierungsgeschäfte, er ist diszipliniert Apre Ski durchdrungen von tiefer Frömmigkeit. COLBERT gelang es, eine florierende Wirtschaft zu entwickeln. Um das Elisabeth Nüdling zu finanzieren, mussten die Untertanen immer höhere Abgaben leisten.

If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

As a result of the fresh British perspective on the European balance of power, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht between Louis, Philip V of Spain , Anne, Queen of Great Britain , and the Dutch Republic.

In , after losing Landau and Freiburg , the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. In the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and its colonies, while Austria received the Spanish Netherlands and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy.

Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland , Rupert's Land , and Acadia in the Americas to Anne.

Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.

Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.

Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.

He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.

He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.

Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Catholic Church in France. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.

Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him.

Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.

Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles.

With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.

At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.

The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.

While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.

The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of the elegant Louvre Colonnade designed by three Frenchmen: Louis Le Vau , Charles Le Brun , and Claude Perrault.

With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.

With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.

The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.

Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.

This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.

The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.

As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.

There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.

Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.

Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle. However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy.

Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.

That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants. The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.

In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.

In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.

He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.

Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.

Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France. He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy.

Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events.

They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

Louis loved ballet and frequently danced in court ballets during the early half of his reign. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets.

This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer. His choices were strategic and varied. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun.

It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing.

The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form.

Ballet dancing was actually used by Louis as a political tool to hold power over his state. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities.

Pierre Beauchamp , his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success.

His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in This major development in ballet played an important role in promoting French culture and ballet throughout Europe during Louis' time.

Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" the French noble style. More challenging skills were required to perform this dance with movements very much resembling court behaviors, as a way to remind the nobles of the king's absolute power and their own status.

All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government.

They often focused on the miseries arising from poor government, but also carried the hope for a better future when Louis escaped the malignant influence of his ministers and mistresses, and took the government into his own hands.

On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy.

These varying interpretations of Louis abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the idea of monarchy.

Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good.

He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes , as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in , dental abscesses in , along with recurring boils , fainting spells, gout , dizziness , hot flushes, and headaches.

On 18 November , Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion.

The wound took more than two months to heal. Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September , four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne.

Enduring much pain in his last days, he finally "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out", while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina O Lord, make haste to help me.

It remained there undisturbed for about 80 years, until revolutionaries exhumed and destroyed all of the remains found in the Basilica. Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family.

His last surviving in-wedlock son, the Dauphin , died in Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father.

Burgundy's elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany , joined them a few weeks later. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's younger son.

Accordingly, the king created a regency council as Louis XIII had in anticipation of Louis XIV's own minority, with some power vested in his illegitimate son Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine.

He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse , of the rank of Prince of the Blood , which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.

Line of succession to the French throne upon the death of Louis XIV in Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in Further down the French line of succession in was the House of Conde , followed by the House of Conti a cadet branch of the House of Conde.

Both of these royal houses were descended in the male line from Henri II, Prince of Conde , a second cousin of French King Louis XIII the father of Louis XIV in the male line.

According to Philippe de Dangeau 's Journal , Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words:. Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.

Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.

Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins.

Thus they do not place much emphasis on Louis' deathbed declarations in assessing his accomplishments.

Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne. This, they contend, ended the threat of an aggressive Spain that historically interfered in domestic French politics.

These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.

Arguably, Louis also applied himself indirectly to "the alleviation of the burdens of [his] subjects. Moreover, the significant reduction in civil wars and aristocratic rebellions during his reign are seen by these historians as the result of Louis' consolidation of royal authority over feudal elites.

In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe.

Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. French became the universal language of the European elite.

Louis' detractors have argued that his considerable foreign, military, and domestic expenditure impoverished and bankrupted France.

His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not.

As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu 's Persian Letters.

Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure.

Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis.

They also maintain that events occurring almost 80 years after his death were not reasonably foreseeable to Louis, and that in any case, his successors had sufficient time to initiate reforms of their own.

Louis has often been criticised for his vanity. The memoirist Saint-Simon , who claimed that Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:. There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it.

For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity:. It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves.

Nonetheless, Louis has also received praise. Filip al III-lea al Spaniei. Anna de Austria. Maria a Spaniei.

Carol al II-lea al Austriei. Margareta de Austria. Albert al V-lea, Duce al Bavariei. Maria Anna de Bavaria.

After the civil war ended, Mazarin began to build an elaborate administration as Louis XIV stood by and observed his mentor.

By then, Louis XIV had come of age, but he was still afraid to question Mazarin's authority. A few years later, Louis XIV fell in love with Marie Mancini, Mazarin's niece.

The marriage ensured ratification of the peace treaty that Mazarin had sought to establish with Hapsburg Spain. It wasn't until Mazarin died in , when Louis XIV was in his 20s, that the young king finally took control of the French government.

Upon assuming full responsibility for the kingdom, Louis XIV quickly set about reforming France according to his own vision.

His first goal as absolute monarch was to centralize and rein in control of France. With the help of his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV established reforms that cut France's deficit and promoted industrial growth.

During his reign, Louis XIV managed to improve France's disorganized system of taxation and limit formerly haphazard borrowing practices.

He also conveniently declared members of nobility exempt from paying taxes, causing them to become even more fiscally dependent on the crown.

In implementing administrative reforms toward a more orderly and stable French government, Louis XIV forced provincial nobles to relinquish their former political influence.

Französische Armeen besetzten weite Teile der Spanischen Niederlande, marschierten ins Reich ein und eroberten zahlreiche feste Plätze. Ludwig selbst beteiligte sich an einigen Belagerungen so in Mons und in Namur.

Zudem waren umfangreiche Truppenverbände des Kaisers im 5. Türkenkrieg gebunden. Die Allianz konnte kaum Siege verbuchen, doch auch Ludwigs Flotte erlitt eine Niederlage vor La Hougue Es gelang keiner der beiden Seiten, den Gegner endgültig niederzuringen.

Frankreich konnte nicht aus dem Reich verdrängt werden. Als Ludwig XIV. Juli , militärisch keinen Frieden erzwingen konnte, begann er, seine Diplomaten als politische Waffe einzusetzen.

Die erschöpften Kontrahenten begannen den Frieden von Rijswijk zu vereinbaren, der im Jahr unterzeichnet wurde.

Darüber hinaus erkannte Ludwig XIV. Frankreich sollte so die Möglichkeit bekommen, sich langfristig von den Kriegsanstrengungen zu erholen. Nach dem Jahr begann die spanische Thronfolge zunehmend zum Hauptthema an den Höfen Europas zu werden.

Der spanische König Karl II. Sowohl die Bourbonen , als auch die Habsburger der österreichischen Linie machten Erbansprüche geltend, denn König Ludwig XIV.

Ludwig hatte allerdings mit Maria Teresa von Spanien die ältere von beiden geehelicht und diese hatte nie mit Gültigkeit auf ihr Erbrecht verzichtet.

Leopold hingegen hatte die jüngere Tochter Margarita von Spanien geheiratet und war zudem der Meinung, dass Spanien im Besitz der Habsburger bleiben müsste.

Nun fürchteten andere Staaten wiederum, dass die Mächtekonstellation in Europa erheblich erschüttert werden würde, sollten sich Frankreich oder Kaiser Leopold Spanien gänzlich einverleiben.

Unter diesen Bedenken handelte Ludwig XIV. Teilungsvertrag aus. Der bayerische Prinz Joseph-Ferdinand sollte Spanien bekommen und die restlichen europäischen Besitzungen Spaniens sollten zwischen Ludwig und Leopold aufgeteilt werden.

Kaiser Leopold akzeptierte diese vertragliche Regelung. Spanien hingegen lehnte jede Teilung seines Reiches ab.

Karl II. Mit dem Tod des erst sechsjährigen bayerischen Prinzen Joseph-Ferdinand im Jahre wurde dieser Plan hinfällig.

Dessen Ansprüche wurden jedoch durch den 2. Teilungsvertrag zwischen Frankreich und England geschmälert. Nach diesem sollte Erzherzog Karl zwar Spanien erben, aber die italienischen Besitzungen sollten an Frankreich fallen.

Daraufhin verweigerte Kaiser Leopold I. Teilungsvertrag und beanspruchte das gesamte spanische Erbe ungeteilt für seinen Sohn Karl, womit er Frankreich, Holland und England brüskierte.

Kurz vor seinem Tod im Jahr entschied sich Karl II. Er setzte den zweiten Sohn des französischen Kronprinzen Louis , den Herzog von Anjou , als Universalerben ein.

Sollte dieser unerwartet den französischen Thron erben, so würde dessen jüngerer Bruder, der Herzog von Berry , Spaniens neuer König.

Sollte auch dieser nicht mehr zu Verfügung stehen, so würde dann erst Erzherzog Karl sein Erbe werden.

Damit erkannte Karl II. Teilungsvertrag mit England bestehen, den Kaiser Leopold jedoch nie anerkannt hatte? Nach intensivem Abwägen mit seinen Ministern, entschloss er sich, das spanische Erbe zu akzeptieren, da ein Krieg mit dem Kaiser nun ohnehin unvermeidlich war und Frankreich so die bessere Position gegen den Kaiser einnehmen konnte.

Es gilt als gesichert, dass eine Ablehnung des Testaments den Krieg nicht hätte verhindern können, da Kaiser Leopold den Waffengang plante, wenn Frankreich auf dem 2.

Teilungsvertrag bestanden hätte. So proklamierte Ludwig XIV. Ludwig befahl die sofortige Besetzung der spanischen Nebenländer, noch bevor sich Leopold ihrer bemächtigen konnte.

Die französisch-spanische Allianz wurde durch Savoyen , Kurköln und Bayern unterstützt, wodurch der Spanische Erbfolgekrieg — ausgelöst wurde.

Frankreich verfolgte nun zwei Ziele: Das wichtigste war die Durchsetzung Philipps V. Der Krieg verlief jedoch wenig geradlinig. Frankreichs Armeen dominierten zu Beginn das Feld.

Die kaiserlichen Alliierten hatten jedoch alle verfügbaren Kräfte gegen Frankreich mobilisiert und ihre Armeen modernisiert und ausgebaut.

Frankreich war gezwungen, während des Krieges Frankreichs Staatsfinanzen wurden überbeansprucht, leere Kassen waren die Folge.

Da die Alliierten jedoch unannehmbare Forderungen stellten, wurden Gespräche unverzüglich abgebrochen. In der Folge wendete sich das Blatt wieder leicht zu Gunsten Frankreichs, eine Entscheidung brachte dies jedoch nicht.

Alle Parteien waren zermürbt und auch die kaiserlichen Alliierten standen vor einem finanziellen und wirtschaftlichen Kollaps.

Als im Jahr Kaiser Joseph I. Zwei Jahre später unterzeichnete England den Separatfrieden von Utrecht mit Ludwig und Philipp und schwächte so die Kaiserlichen weiter.

Durch die Besetzung Freiburgs im November durch Frankreichs Truppen, sah sich Kaiser Karl VI. Danach erfolgte der Friede von Baden zwischen Frankreich und dem Reich.

Philipp V. Die Reste der Spanischen Niederlande und die italienischen Besitzungen fielen an den Kaiser. Damit hatte Frankreich sein politisches Hauptziel erreicht und die Bourbonen auf Spaniens Thron etabliert, musste jedoch auf fast jede militärische Eroberung verzichten.

Dennoch war die habsburgische Umklammerung Frankreichs endgültig zerschlagen worden. In seinen letzten Jahren kümmerte sich Ludwig XIV.

Da sein Urenkel Ludwig XV. September durch Wundbrand an seinem linken Bein. Under hans tid vid makten utkämpade Frankrike tre storkrig: Fransk-nederländska kriget , pfalziska tronföljdskriget och spanska tronföljdskriget.

Fram till styrdes Ludvigs rike inte av honom personligen, utan av kardinal Mazarin. När Ludvig personligen tog över regeringen var Frankrike Europas mäktigaste stat.

I det vidsträckta tyska kejsarriket hade franske kungen mer att säga till om än vad den tyske kejsaren hade.

Ludvig föddes Ludvig XIII avled och hans son Ludvig XIV blev kung 14 maj Hans mor bestämde att kardinal Mazarin skulle styra landet till dess att Ludvig var myndig.

Detta minskade Frankrikes chanser att dra fördelar av Westfaliska freden. Orsaken till fronden var att makten hade blivit allt för centraliserad.

Den andra fronden, startade , men slogs ned Frankrike erhöll hela Roussillon , Artois samt delar av Flandern och Luxemburg. De gifte sig den 9 juni Hela hemgiften betalades aldrig av Spanien, som var bankrutt.

Statsskulden minskades genom ett lättare skattesystem. Colbert räknas till en av merkantilismens grundare. Den innebar att Frankrike nu hade ett gemensamt lagsystem.

Tidigare hade de norra delarna av Frankrike sedvanerätt coutume och de södra hade ett romerskt lagsystem. Ludvig XIV tunnettiin myös lisänimellä Suuri, koska hän vahvisti monarkian asemaa yhteiskunnassa.

Hänestä itsestään tuli itsevaltias , jolla oli jumalallinen oikeus valtaansa. Aihe on kiistelty, mutta ilmeisesti hän todella sanoi niin.

Kardinaali Mazarinin kuoleman 9. Ludvig XIV:n tuli näyttää kykynsä ja todistaa siten arvovaltansa.

Kuusi kuukautta myöhemmin, 5. Nuori kuningas syrjäytti väärinkäytöksistä syytetyn ministerinsä osoittaakseen valtansa suuruuden.

Vaikka Fouquet olisikin syyllistynyt joihinkin väärinkäytöksiin, ei hän missään tapauksessa ollut toiminut pahemmin kuin edeltäjänsä Mazarin tai seuraajansa Colbert.

Hän oli osoittanut kahdeksan vuoden ministerikautensa aikana jopa tiettyä tehokkuutta, sillä Ranskan valtiontalous oli kohentunut siitä tilasta, johon se oli joutunut kolmikymmenvuotisen sodan ja Fronden kapinan seurauksena vuoden seutuvilla.

Kuninkaalla oli kuitenkin tarve näyttää, että hän hallitsi itse ja että hän saattoi eliminoida kenet tahansa, joka oli tullut liian kunnianhimoiseksi.

Kuninkaan ohjelman kolmevuotisen oikeusprosessin jälkeen Fouquet korvattiin Jean-Baptiste Colbertilla vuonna Tällöin voidaan sanoa aurinkokuninkaan todellisen vallankäytön alkaneen.

Ludvig XIV Suuren hallituskauden alkupuoli oli suurten hallinnollisten uudistusten aikaa. Se oli eritoten verorasituksen kasvun aikaa. Hän loi vuonna Ludvigin oikeusjärjestelmän, eräänlaisen siviilioikeusnormiston.

Vastaavanlaisen oikeusnormiston rikosoikeuden alalle hän loi vuonna Metsänkäytön ja merenkulun lainsäädäntöä hän loi vuonna sekä kauppalainsäädännön vuonna Ajan myötä kuninkaan ympärille muodostui kaksi erillistä klaania, jotka kilpailivat toistensa kanssa lähes kaikessa.

Kuninkaalla oli kaksi kilpailevaa ryhmittymää käskettävänä, ja oli selvää että ne suorittivat tehokasta toistensa kontrollia.

Tällä tavoin estettiin ministerien mahdolliset kuninkaaseen kohdistuvat vallankaappaussuunnitelmat.

Vuoteen Colbertin klaani oli johtavassa asemassa, mutta kun Hollannin vastaisen sodan valmistelut alkoivat ja Colbert suhtautui hyvin varauksellisesti sodan edellyttämään valtion menojen kasvuun, hän menetti suosiotaan kuninkaan silmissä.

Tämän lisäksi Colbertin 52 vuotta tuohon aikaan ja kuninkaan 33 vuotta ikäero aiheutti sen, että kuningas lähestyi ikätoveriaan Louvois'ta, joka oli vain vuotias ja jolla oli sama harrastus kuin kuninkaalla: sota.

Vuoteen saakka Louvois'n klaani oli kuninkaan suhteen erittäin vaikutusvaltainen. Ludvig XIV:n syntymän jälkeen Ranska oli ollut jatkuvasti sodassa Espanjaa vastaan erityisesti vastustaakseen Habsburgien valtaa Euroopassa.

Ranska osallistui loppuvaiheessa kolmikymmenvuotiseen sotaan , joka päättyi Westfalenin rauhaan vuonna Englantilaisia johti tuohon aikaan lordiprotektori Oliver Cromwell.

Kyse oli vasta vuotiaan Ludvig XIV:n ensimmäisestä suuresta voitosta. Hallituskautensa 54 vuodesta Ludvig XIV omisti sodankäynnille kaikkiaan 32 vuotta.

Tämä uusi poliittinen toimi vähensi karkulaisten määrää armeijasta, ja sotilaiden elintaso nousi merkittävästi. Seuraava suurempi konflikti oli vuodesta vuoteen kestänyt Hollannin sota , joka päättyi tunnettuun Nijmegenin rauhaan.

Yhdeksänvuotinen sota eli Augsburgin liigan sota tai Pfalzin perimyssota käytiin vuosina — , ja viimeinen suuri konflikti oli Espanjan perimyssota — Tässä konfliktissa Ranskan edut olivat todella suuret, sillä Ludvig XIV:n pojanpoika oli saatu Espanjan kuninkaaksi ja Habsburgit yrittivät vallata valtaistuinta itselleen.

Nämä sodat kasvattivat huomattavasti Ranskan alueellista kokonaisuutta. Tämä kaikki lisäsi merkittävästi Ranskan hegemoniaa Euroopassa.

Valtion jatkuva sotatilassa oleminen johti sen kuitenkin vararikon partaalle ja pakotti kohottamaan jo raskaaksi käynyttä kansan verotaakkaa, tosin verotuksen kohteeksi joutuivat myös aateliset.

Myös kuninkaallisen perheen tuli maksaa veronsa. Ludvig XIV:n hallitusaikana aatelistosta tuli kurtisaanien sääty, joka oli alistettu kuninkaan tahtoon.

Kuningas antoi poliittisen vallan porvaristolle, josta Colbert käy hyvin esimerkkinä. Hän salli vain rajoitetun aloitteellisuuden aatelistolle, jota hän halveksi.

Ludwig Xiv Uhr bei RTL ausgestrahlt? - Ludwig XIV.: Das königliche Schlafgemach

In der Film Mama, der nunmehr zur Stadt erhobenen Anlagen von Versailles, entstanden zahllose Schlösser und Gärten, die von Angehörigen des Königshauses und vom Hofadel errichtet wurden. Was waren die Schattenseiten des Sonnenkönigs Ludwig XIV.? Welche Fehler hat der absolutistische Herrscher in Wirtschaft, Religions- und Außenpolitik begange. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Portrait of Louis XIV in Coronation Robes was painted in by the French painter Hyacinthe Rigaud after being commissioned by the king who wanted to satisfy the desire of his grandson, Philip V, for a portrait of him. Louis XIV kept it hanging at Versailles. This portrait has become the "official portrait" of Louis XIV. Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis le Grand, Louis le Grand Monarque, or le Roi Soleil, (born September 5, , Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died September 1, , Versailles, France), king of France (–) who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age. Louis XIV was born on September 5, , in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France, and christened Louis-Dieudonné—French for "Gift of God." His mother was the Hapsburg Spanish queen Anne of Austria, and.
Ludwig Xiv

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